Urology is the branch of urinary tract and urinary tract diseases in men and urinary tract diseases in women. Urinary tract urinary canals, urinary canals, urinary bladder and urethra is the channel we empty the urine. In men, penis, prostate, testes are also of interest to urology.

The most common urological problems are;

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Prostate growth and cancer,
  • Renal and ureteral stones
  • Congenital Urinary Tract Obstructions
  • Renal and Urinary Bladder Cancers
  • Hardening problems

In addition, urinary incontinence and urinary incontinence problems in women are also of interest to urology.


Prostate; it is a secretory gland in the male genital tract that surrounds the bladder and plays a role in the fluidity of the mening. It consists of secreting cells and their supporting peripheral tissue.

Prostate cancer is also manifested by the abnormal development of these secreting cells. If it cannot be diagnosed in the early period, it spreads to the surrounding tissues through prostate cancer, lymph and blood vessel. The most common spread is the lymph nodes and bones around the site. In addition, it can spread to the lungs, liver and other organs.

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men and the second most common type of cancer worldwide. It is estimated that approximately one in every 6 men will have prostate cancer and one in every 38 men will lose their lives due to this disease.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:

The most common symptoms of prostate cancer and non-cancerous prostate growth are the same:

  • Difficulty in urination
  • Urinate more often than usual, specially at night,
  • Pain during urination
  • Blood with urine or mening
  • Waist, hips and thigh pains

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

Prostate cancer usually does not show symptoms until advanced stages. It can usually be detected by elevation or rectal examination in the PSA test.

On rectal examination, the urologist looks for any tumor-related stiffness or irregularities on the external surface of the prostate. Although PSA level was within normal limits in 25% of the patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, the diagnosis was determined by the hardness and irregularity of the finger examination.

PSA Test

PSA is an enzyme that is released from the prostate gland in men and allows sperm to liquefy. Essentially, it is secreted from the cells that lay the channels of the prostate and form the interior. Rise in blood is important for prostate cancer; however, PSA elevation is not specific to prostate cancer. PSA may also increase in benign growth of prostate and prostate inflammation.

Treatment in Prostate Cancer

  • Active Monitoring
  • Surgical Treatment
  • Radiotherapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Chemotherapy

Urinary Stone Disease (urolithiasis)

Urinary tract stone disease (urolithiasis) is common in our country because of its geographical, genetic and nutritional habits. Approximately every ten people in one period of her life stone occurs. Men make up stones 3 times more often than women. This difference is reduced due to changes in lifestyle and diet.

How is a Stone Formed?

As a result of the imbalance in the excretion and retention of the electrolytes in urine, stone crystals are formed. The stones that develop in the kidneys may remain there, or they may move to the urethra.

How does urolithiasis cause symptoms?

You can feel the severe pain known as renal colic due to blockage of the urinary tract. This waist and flank (both sides of you, the lower part of the ribs to the hip) is a sharp pain felt in your area. If the stone is not in your kidney, but in your ureter, pain is felt in the groin and thigh region. Renal colitis can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloody urine, painful urine, and fever.

How to Diagnose?

  • In patients presenting with renal colic, ultrasound, X-ray or tomography, presence of stone, obstruction, and degree and level of obstruction are investigated.
  • Tomography gives detailed information about stone size, location and hardness degree and kidney.
  • Blood and urine analysis should also be performed at baseline.

Many patients presenting with renal colic to the Emergency Department receive pain relief treatment. In patients with small size ureter or kidney stones with imaging methods, urinary tract obstruction is expected to decrease spontaneously if there is no obstruction. During this time, your doctor will give you some advice for easy removal.